Thursday, May 5, 2016

Yale Environmental Performance Index 2016 Launched

Yale University will launch its flagship Environmental Performance Index (EPI) report at United Nations Headquarters in New York City with a discussion event on Monday, 9 May 2016. This index ranks 180 countries on high-priority environmental issues including air quality, climate change, and water resources.
The EPI provides a scorecard and baseline to assess each country's performance and inform progress on United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Climate Change Agreement.
The Panelists in the EPI for 2016 are:

1. H.E. Mrs. Janine Coye Felson - Ambassador, Deputy Permanent Representative of Belize to the United Nations
2.Mr. Elliott Harris- Assistant Secretary-General, Head of the New York Office of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP)3. Ms. Kim Samuel- President of The Samuel Family Foundation and Professor of Practice at the Institute for Studies in International Development at McGill University4. Dr. Angel Hsu- Assistant Professor at Yale-National University of Singapore (NUS) College; EPI Principal Investigator
The esteemed panelists will discuss how nations are performing on critical environmental issues - individually and collectively. What portion of the world breathes unsafe air? How many of the world's fisheries have collapsed? Are countries protecting forests and biodiversity?
The event provides an opportunity for UN Member States, UN staff, civil society  and others working to advance environmental policy and implement the SDGs to learn which environmental issues require the most attention and resources. Country representatives will have a chance to see a breakdown of their EPI scores, allowing them a better understanding of which national environmental policies are working and which are not.

The 2016 Environmental Performance Index which is in its 15 year is a project lead by the Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy (YCELP) and Yale Data-Driven Environmental Solutions Group at Yale University (Data-Driven Yale), the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) at Columbia University, in collaboration with the Samuel Family Foundation, McCall MacBain Foundation, and the World Economic Forum. 
For more information, please visit:

Sunday, May 1, 2016

Wild Fire in Nepal destroys 5500 hectares of forest

A massive wildfire has threatened to destroyed 5,500 hectares of Panchase forest area and 12 kinds of rare trees, 10 kinds of medicinal herbs, 113 kinds of Sungabha flower, eight types of herbs and 589 kinds of flowers apart from endangered wild animals.

The bush fire started on Thursday night in a forest area of Panchase, has yet to be brought under control.

The forest area, which borders Parbat, Kaski and Syangja districts, is home to diverse floras and faunas. The fire is threatening endangered species of birds, animals and herbs in the forest area.

A coordinated teams from the Nepali Army, Armed Police Force and Nepal Police are trying to contain the fire, under  District Adminstration Office, Parbat.

Tuesday, December 1, 2015

COP21 and its implication in terms of policies and process

Carbon Footprint 
These pictures speak reality, these pictures are taken from my terrace where everyday carbon falls from the sky. The carbon is collected from a solar panel on top of a roof and everyday it's the same case. Who is responsible?
 You, me or someone else who is sitting in a developed country and who enjoys the benefit of pollution ?

Why us ? If they are enjoying the benefit then they ought to face the problems but reality is the ecosystem runs by the bottoms up approach where climate change factors affects the natural resources first and gradually move upwards. I guess it's a more of cleansing process that starts with the natural way.

The climates changes symptoms are so vivid these days that it has short-come the preliminary symptoms where the temperature is rising with rise in numbers of various types of  insects and other animals are visually appearing.
Apart from that due to climate change a lot of herbal plants from the Himalayan ecosystem  are vanishing, similar can be the case of minerals as well.

Nepal is a small countries where our Green house gas emission rate is even less than zero and we are facing the problems.

The big conferences like COP talk about mitigation and adaptation strategy but my question is will that help in terms of getting back of what we have lost or compromised.
 I say a big NO.
So where is our voice nowhere ? They just pretend to give voices to our problems where there are less efforts done for real actions.

By doing a climate march or making people aware about the issue things won't change, The climate degradation wont stop, it's further rising with insane results.
The world has to react but with what is my concern. I do not say it matter less but does it makes our life safer is the reality check that I look for.

If this is the case then the vulnerabilities created by climates changes should be treated like global terrorism where one country or nation can attack other for spreading more pollution, only then it would make a difference......

Let's come down to reality and think what will make developed countries stop their pollution development process and we ought to move towards that path  then just focusing on issues that are relevant.  

The solution can be only one, it can be stopped only by stopping the pollution itself that too has major hurdles. The development of the 21 century seems to be more nature killing one and we ought to focus on that. we have to stop such development which is virtually pushing the world on the brink of extension. It fairly sounds rude but hey I am the one who is suffering due to climate change not an American or a french or a English or a Indian ...
Though as big as the conference are it may sound but these conferences lobby issues of developed countries only where there voices of developed nations and people lobby their issues of interests and politics. The big games of the conferences are more focused towards their position of saving their own ass  
We need solutions not impression of action. Hypothetically let's consider if the developed countries lessen their pollution rate  would it be affecting the environment and I would really doubt. As the question here is not about what has been damaged but the question here is about what would further be damaged as climate change is a vulnerable issue that works with feasibility of various element of nature. The random occurrence of the change in Geo-Thermic activities hugely affect the core atmospherics elements which internally rises the temperature.

If one element changes it affects the other elements and there is a drastic change that is occurring. If we are looking for a  long terms change  it cannot be processed until and unless we  restore elements needed  or else it would create a imbalance in the ecosystem.

It's a very complex topic but getting it down to its dynamic its not that easy, the way it is visualized, there are layers of affects that are taking place and the elements are  changing that cannot be undone. The Earth ecosystem is not a a chemical lab where and which can be manipulated by developed nation. As complex as the problem we need a dynamic solution for correction where we have no guidance and solution. We are just pulling our socks in view of saving ourselves from the blame.  

Monday, October 5, 2015

First Draft of New Climate Change Agreement Presented to Governments

The Ad hoc working group on the Durban platform (ADP) submitted a new universal climate change agreement to strengthened through the issuance of the first comprehensive draft   today.
The link to the paper is click here

The Co-Chairs of the Ad hoc working group on the Durban platform (ADP), the body tasked with negotiating the agreement, prepared the draft, which contains the basis for negotiation of the draft Paris climate package. In addition to the agreement, the package contains a draft of the decision that will operationalize the agreement from 2020 and a draft decision on pre-2020 ambition.
he documents can be found here.

The draft of the agreement is a concise basis for negotiations for the next negotiating session from 19-23 October 2015 in Bonn. Co-Chairs Ahmed Djoghalf of Algeria and Daniel Reifsnyder of the United States prepared the draft in response to a request from countries to have a better basis from which to negotiate.

Governments are committed to reaching the new agreement at the UN Climate Change Conference to be held in Paris in December this year.

Wednesday, July 15, 2015

COP21 to be held from November 30th to December 11th 2015 in Paris

The 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will be held from November 30th to December 11th 2015 in Paris. It is estimated to bring  around 40,000 participants and diplomats from governments, UN agencies, civil society and INGOs from all over the world.

The main Objective of the COP21 is to reach a global legally binding climate agreement to limit global average temperature increases to below 2°C and facilitate the transition towards resilient, low-carbon societies and economies.

Tuesday, February 3, 2015

ADB resident mission celebrates 25 years in Nepal

Celebrating the 25th anniversary of Nepal Resident Mission (NRM) of ADB, Takehiko Nakao President of Asian Development Bank (ADB)is on a 3 days visit of Nepal. During his visit Nakao  has shown his commitment to  investment more in creating a better scenario for  investment in climate sector  to  increase implementation of infrastructure projects. In a program he focused to accelerate spending is the key question and  supporting capacity building of implementing agencies regarding this.

According to Nakao, " Nepal’s public capital expenditure disbursed in recent years stood at a mere 3.3 per cent of GDP, compared to 8.5 per cent required to fill the infrastructure gap within a decade. Every year, about 20 per cent of the allocated budget is underutilised, which has underlined the need to build fundamental capacities for project development and implementation, and improve budgetary processes for timely approval and fund release."

"Areas including infrastructure development, investment on people especially education and health, good investment climate to attract foreign direct investment, microeconomic stability, inclusiveness in society, vision, governance, political stability and security should be the focus sectors of the government for economic development. In all these sectors, there are encouraging signs, but Nepal still needs local efforts to better address the investment climate," added he.

Nakao emphasized to promote investment and public private partnership (PPP), he also assured to  support in regulatory framework for PPP to attract private sector in hydropower. He lauded the signing of power trade agreement with India that assures of power trading and reduction of poverty to 25 per cent of population of the country.

Nepal is a founding developing member country of ADB, established in 1966. Since ADB began its development assistance in 1969, by funding the improvement of Tribhuvan International Airport and four domestic airports, ADB has provided 167 sovereign loans and grants to Nepal totalling $4.3 billion.

During the meeting with leaders, Nakao said that ADB is planning to extend concessional loans of about $1 billion and around $13 million in technical assistance grant to Nepal over the next three years.

Thursday, October 16, 2014

Hudhud Cyclone triggers more than 25 death in Nepal

The Strongest tropical cyclone of 2014 that started in the North Indian Ocean left behind catastrophic results not just in Indian terrain but prolonged its way in the Himalayan region of Nepal. In Nepal the 2 days of continuous raining resulted in death of more than 25 people and dozens of other missing in the ordeal of avalanches debris in three western mountainous districts of Nepal.

Nepal faced the trickle-down effect of the Hudhud cyclone where the continuous heavy raining of 2 days brought on by the cyclone battered the mountainous region. The weather triggered blizzards at high altitudes where the world famous Annapurna region trekking was declared an alert zone.

More than 200 trekkers were directly affected by the freakish storm that began bearing down on the Annapurna region on Tuesday.  Dozens were reported missing and feared buried under snow and avalanche debris.

According to Trekking Agencies’ Association of Nepal (TAAN), “ TAAN rescued 77 trekkers from different parts of Manang district on Thursday. Of the trekkers rescued on Thursday, 17 were Israelis, 29 Nepalis (support staff), 5 Indonesians, 10 Germans, 5 Spanish, 4 Indians, 3 Canadians, 2 Russians, and 2 Polish.”

On Wednesday, the rescue team brought down five bodies – two Nepalis, two Israelis and one Polish. Similarly, one more body has been brought down to Jomsom. Their identity has yet to be ascertained. With this the number of deceased in Mustang side has reached 10. Rescue teams had recovered four bodies.

Meanwhile, rescue workers have recovered 10 bodies from Phu and Kangla area of Manang.

Joint rescue team comprising security personnel from Nepal Army and Nepal Police are continuously in process of rescuing the victims.

Wednesday, October 15, 2014

Sudden Climate change increases death toll in Annapurna region

According to latest reports,  around  21 persons, including 12 foreign trekkers, have died due to massive snowfall in different parts of the Annapurna Region.

The dead people have been reported from  Nine  Nepal, three  Israelis, three Polish and one from Vietnam. Similarly, Nepal Army (NA) has rescued 20 more. They have been flown down to Jomsom for treatment. It has been reported that currently there is 3.3 meters of snow fall due to avalanche. 

Though August, September and October are considered the best trekking seasons  but due to the sudden climate change things have really gone bad. Joint rescue operation of  Nepal Army and private sector are continuously working in safeguarding the people stuck in such region.

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

Nepal to participate in the UIAA general assembly

A joint team of climate change experts and diplomats have left Nepal on Tuesday to participate in the general assembly of International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (UIAA) to be held from October 15 to 18 at Flagstaff, Arizona.

 The delegate consists of  Ang Tshering Sherpa NMA President, Santa Bir Lama  First Vice President, Pemba Dorje Sherpa Central Executive Board Member,  Suresh Man Shrestha Secretary and Under Secretary Ram Prasad Sapkota from the Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation.

According to a statement issued by Nepal Mountaineering Association (NMA), “The meeting will discuss on mountain environment, climbing and mountaineering ethics, access to nature, mountaineering expeditions, training standards, youth climbing and mountaineering mobilisation, ice climbing development, UIAA safety standards, medical and anti-doping, along with other mountain related issues.”

During the General Assembly the  NMA president Sherpa who is also an Honorary Member of UIAA will give a presentation focusing on mountain, cultural and other tourism products of Nepal.

Monday, September 29, 2014

Villages abandoned in Mustang areas due to Climate Change

Amid the climate change harsh effects being discussed, two  mountain village in the district of Mustang, Samjung and Ghey  have  completely been abandoned by their inhabitants due to lack of water resources and climate change effects.

It has been reported  that due to climate change the  temperatures in the region have increased phenomenally drying natural water resources compelling people  to migrate to lower southern region of the district.

 According to Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP), "Climate change and global warming has hugely hit the region where it has affected the bio diversity directly. The local weather pattern has changed  ranging from extreme drought situations to extreme rainfall and has thus increased the risk of flash floods and landslide in the region. Moreover,  the time to harvest crops after their plantation has also changed. While the villages had to wait for nearly a year to harvest a batch of crop, now they get the yields several times a year."

The recent government statistics state that the temperature in the mountains in Nepal has been on the rise by 0.06 per cent compared to the 0.04 per cent in the southern plain. This has risked the melting down of Glacier in the Himalayan region which hugely threats the valley

Tuesday, August 19, 2014

ADB states Nepal risk hugely due to climate change

Kathmandu, Nepal:  According to a Asian Development Bank (ADB) report titled Assessing the Costs of Climate Change and Adaptation in South Asia, Nepal is extremely vulnerable to glacial lake overflows‚ landslides‚ flash floods‚ and droughts and also to longer-term climate change effects.

The report highlights that it can cause losses equal to almost 10% of the country’s annual gross domestic product (GDP) by 2100. Nepal would see economic losses equivalent to up to 2.2% of annual GDP by 2050, widening to 9.9% by the end of the century. But if mitigation and adaptation steps are taken, the damage could be limited to around 2.4% of GDP by 2100.

Similarly, countries like Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka of South Asia will see an average economic loss of 1.8% of their collective GDP every year by 2050.

Regarding the melting glaciers in Nepal's mountainous areas, landslides are likely to increase, threatening lives and infrastructure. It strictly marks  a risk to both human settlements and hydropower systems as they form high-altitude lakes causing catastrophic flooding downstream.

Making a suggestion the report marked that at least $73 billion, or an average of 0.86% of its GDP needs to be spend  as  the cost of climate change adaptation measures in South Asia every year between now and 2100.

"On the other hand, if countries act together to keep the rise in global temperatures below 2.5°C, the cost of South Asia shielding itself from the worst of the impacts would be nearly halved to around $40.6 billion, or 0.48% of GDP," it suggested.

Friday, August 8, 2014

TAAN International Eco-Challenge

The  Trekking Agencies’ Association of Nepal (TAAN) is all set to organize its  TAAN International Eco-Challenge to promote adventure sports here in Nepal .  This year TAAN is organizing 2nd TAAN International Eco-Challenge 2014 on August 17.
The  international event includes three sporting events running, cycling and rafting. Interested participants will need to form a group of five persons including a team manager who will not participate in the sporting events. All four participants will first run on the 6.5KM track from Bhutkhel ground in Tokha to Pani Muhan at the entrance of Shivapuri  Nagarjun-National Park. The participants will then cycle on the 14.5 KM kilometer track through the Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park. After completing cycling, the participants will then raft on 7.5KM segment of Bagmati River until Gokarna.
The winning team will receive gold medals, certificates and cash prize of Rs 125,000. Similarly, the first runner-up will receive silver medals, certificates and cash prize of Rs 95,000, while the second runner-up will receive bronze medals, certificates and a purse of Rs 65,000.
Anyone above the age of 18 can participate in the event by paying registration fee of Rs 4,000 per team.
The official website of the event is

Wednesday, August 6, 2014

Sunkoshi landslide and flooding threatens Indo-Nepal boarders

Marking the death toll of more than hundred people and questioning the safety of valleys below the Sunkoshi landslide and flooding has been a major issue of concern for all. With such tragic condition, the government of Nepal has already declared the devastated area as flood crisis zone. The landslide that occurred on the early hours of 2 August 2014, blocked the river sunkoshi above Jure village, about 1.4 km upstream from the Sun Koshi Hydropower project’s. Within hours a new lake was formed which rapidly grew to a volume of an estimated 7 million cubic metres and  extended about 3 km upstream, completely submerging the 2.6 MW Sanima Hydropower station.  The massive landslide  then  created a high dam across the Sun Koshi River which blocked the river and submerged 3 villages.

It is estimated that 1.9 km long slope of land had perched 1,350 m above the river bed  and collapsed, burying two dozen houses, taking the lives of at least thirty-three people, and injuring many more.
As many as 14 VDCs in Khotang district are at high risk of inundation after the landslide in Sindhupalchok district blocked the passage of Sunkoshi River.

Bahunidanda, Dikuwa, Chyasmitar, Durchhim, Dhitung, Rajapani, Batase, Chichkiramche, Barahapokhari, Saunechaur, Suntale and few other VDCs that are on the side of Sunkoshi river are at high risk of flooding.

 The Arniko Highway, one of the  trade link between China and Nepal  has been completely blocked.

Due to the spill over of the water level the sunkoshi   river in Bihar increased on Sunday after the Nepalese army carried out low-intensity blasts to remove the landslide debris. With alarming situation the 52 gates of the Koshi barrage at the borders have been opened .

Wednesday, June 4, 2014

Environment Day celebrated in Nepal 2014

Environment Day 2014

Trekking Agencies’ Association of Nepal (TAAN) is  organizing a tree plantation program to celebrate the World Environment Day with the theme ‘Raise Your Voice, Not the Sea Level’. TAAN is  organizing the tree plantation program at Jalbinayak area of Chobhar, Kathmandu. Everyone  is invited to attend the  program.
The program details are given below.
Program Details:
Date : Thursday, June 5 2014
Gathering : 6:30 am sharp at Lainchour (In front of Malla Hotel)
Departure for Chobhar : 7 am sharp
Plantation : 8: 30 am onwards
Lunch : 11: 30 am
Departure for Kathmandu : 1:00 pm

Wednesday, April 2, 2014

Nepal has no escaping to climate change

Glaciers outburst

Concerning the temperature rise and the risk of global climate change, Nepal and its surrounding periphery countries are on the hot topic of being victims of global warming. As the latest update from the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) writes the changes of global warming will affects the  economic growth that will trickle its effects on food supply, poverty and overall development of the country at large.

The report highlights the most vulnerable region to be the Himalayan Glaciers that are at the stage of loosing its half and two-thirds of their mass by 2100. This not only means devastation in the ecology, but practically impossible for the supporting  ecosystem to survive.  Six of the glacier lakes have been identified as  extremely vulnerable, which at this rate are melting and pose a huge threat. If preventive measures are not taken then it will result in huge losses of properties as well as casualties.   

With the temperature rise the weather pattern of Nepal has instigated an increase in an unpredictable climate of  floods and cyclones where the productivity of farmers is getting affected hugely. The rise of the pest  and unusual dry winter has slashed the agricultural productivity where the country’s economy sets back with minimum yield in the  absence of proper conditions.

Changing the overall outlook, there is very much that Nepal can do in terms of mitigation, but with a small action plan it can change the impact of action in an alteration for its reaction taking prominent action with the adaptation strategy for climate change. Looking at its contribution to the global greenhouse gas emissions Nepal bears is a tiny fraction of not even  a percent, but it bears a huge impact of climate change in context of its action.

Every year, millions of dollars are pledged to Nepal in the name of ‘climate change adaptation’ by major greenhouse contributors like China, the US, the EU and India, but in real practice only a fraction of the money promised is passed on for adaptation.
Though adaptation it is just a short term remedy for relieving the problem no specific remedy is being developed highlighting the mitigation strategy. Kyoto Protocol certainly highlighted a reliable solution, but it was majorly affected by lack of interest and practice, especially in terms of developed nations and their interest.  For longer lasting solution till the time the GHSs contributors reduces their carbon footprint things won’t change and for a developing nation like Nepal has no voice except to look for option of adaptation options.

Tuesday, November 12, 2013

Nepal Government allocated 10.34% of its budget for the 2013—2014

Kathmandu: The government of Nepal in its latest Budget of 517.24 billion Nepal rupee (around US$ 5.3 billion) has allocated 10.34 per cent of its budget for the 2013—2014 fiscal year to climate funding, Nepal being one of the least developed countries face huge challenges in regards to climate change. 

The budget incorporates climate codes, making official an analytical framework to calculate government funds channelled for programmes related to climate change, the outlay for which has increased substantially this year.  

"Although the figures for last year were not published, internal calculations told us that funds for climate change comprised 6.7 per cent of the Nepal rupees 404.82 billion (US$ 4.16 billion) budget  compared to 10.34 per cent for a larger budget this year," said Madhukar Upadhya, advisor for the Poverty and Environment Initiative — a UNDP-UNEP programme with Nepal’s National Planning Commission (NPC).  

COP19 faces new challenges for least developed countries like Nepal

The 19th UN climate change conference  Conference of the Parties (CoP) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) is being held in the Poland capital Warsaw from November 11-22. With high expectation this year the Nepali Delegation team  lead the  Least Developed Countries (LDCs) at  CoP19. The delegation not only faces huge responsibilities of raising voice against the climate change effects but at diplomacy level it also hold responsibilities of securing funds for combating climate change effects in the region.  In last  December, Nepal was officially granted the  leadership of the LDC group for the year 2013-14.

Nepal currently represents 49 LDCs at a global forum overcoming the different climate change issued faced both at mitigation and adaptation stages.

The conference has been participated by 200 countries where climate change diplomacy is going on to
 negotiate a new agreement in due replacement of the expiry of the Kyoto Protocol.

At the launch of the report, IPCC Working Group 1 co-chair Thomas Stocker informed: “Global surface temperature change for the end of the 21st century is projected to be likely to exceed 1.5°C relative to 1850 to 1900 in all but the lowest scenario considered, and likely to exceed 2°C for the two high scenarios. Heat waves are very likely to occur more frequently and last longer. We have nearly crossed the threshold of the projected world average temperature rise of 1.5°C. The IPCC report further states that it is 95 percent certain that human induced climate change is increasing temperature, glacier melting, sea level rise and extreme weather events globally."

In this context, COP19 needs to urgently deliver on a number of fronts to tackle the problem both in the long and short terms. The LDC Group  highlighted  that this COP would have to deliver on four major fronts:
1) Reducing carbon emission so that the world is on a relatively safer path;
2) Increasing the level of finance for the developing countries to address climate impacts;
3) Establishing an international mechanism on loss and damage to address issues not covered under adaptation;
4) Agreeing on a clear road map on how the negotiations will progress to produce a deal in 2015. All these issues are seen as politically thorny and are likely to invite heated negotiations when the conference starts next week.

Securing climate change fund, the conference also facilitates the  implementation of its National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA). The NAPA, approved by the government in 2010, is a US $ 350 million program, which, under several sectors and profiles, aims at empowering the local people to adapt to climate change.

In addition to securing climate change fund for the NAPA´s implementation, Nepal is responsible for raising common issues of the LDCs, too. While some LDCs, like Nepal, are mountain countries and face risks of climate-induced disasters, including Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs), other countries, like Bangladesh, face threats from rising sea-level.

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Himalayas are getting warmer

The Himalayas are getting warmer at a rate of 0.6 °C each decade, three times the global average. Rainfall there is increasing at a rate of 65 millimetres per decade and the monsoon season is getting wetter. However, winters are getting drier

As a result of the warming, most Himalayan glaciers are retreating rapidly. Glacier lakes are becoming larger and more numerous, inundating pastures and threatening downstream communities. The changing climate is also “taking a toll on alpine pastures and forests. Some plants are shifting to higher altitudes, others are on the verge of extinction, and the incidence of invasive species is rising. If the warming trend persists, we will see drastic changes in the ecosystems, with devastating consequences on biodiv­ersity and the livelihood of mountain communities.

Tuesday, August 27, 2013

Climate Change Name

From  the past, Climate change devastation have been named after normal names. How about naming it after the policy makers who deny climate change policies coz you don't want your name to be cursed

So politicians be aware !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Sunday, August 4, 2013

Nepal Government Allocates 10.34% of its budget for climate change

Kathmandu: The Government of Nepal in its latest Budget of 517.24 billion Nepal rupee (around US$ 5.3 billion) has allocated 10.34 per cent of its budget for the 2013—2014 fiscal year to climate funding, Nepal being one of the least developed countries face huge challenges in regards to climate change.

The budget incorporates climate codes, making official an analytical framework to calculate government funds channeled for programs related to climate change, the outlay for which has increased substantially this year.

"Although the figures for last year were not published, internal calculations told us that funds for climate change comprised 6.7 per cent of the Nepal rupees 404.82 billion (US$ 4.16 billion) budget  compared to 10.34 per cent for a larger budget this year," said Madhukar Upadhya, advisor for the Poverty and Environment Initiative — a UNDP-UNEP programme with Nepal’s National Planning Commission (NPC).  

Tuesday, July 16, 2013

An initiation to combat Glacial Lake Outburst Risk

Highlighting the risk of community based flooding and glacial lake outburst, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) signed  an agreement with Nepal Government to minimize the threats of climate change.

The Community Based Flood and Glacial Lake Outburst Risk Reduction Project (CBFGLOF), is a joint program under  Nepal government and UNDP‚ which will directly benefit the people living in the alert zone.

The project will contribute to Nepal’s National Adaptation Plan of Action’s (NAPA) Profile 3 and 4 ‘Community-Based Disaster Management for Facilitating Climate Adaptation’ and ‘GLOF Monitoring and Disaster Risk Reduction’ respectively.A community-based early warning system to build resilience to flood and GLOF risk would also be installed during the project.

Ministry of Science‚ Technology and Environment (MoSTE)‚ will implement the plans under the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM)where the funding will be invested by Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) managed by Global Environment Facility (GEF) and UNDP which totals US$ 7.2 million for a duration of four years from 2013 to 2017.

The project aims to reduce human and material losses from Glacier Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) events in Solukhumbu district and catastrophic flooding events in the Tarai and Churia Range of Nepal.

The project targets to reduce GLOF risk from Imja Lake that threatens livelihood of downstream communities of the Sagarmatha National Park‚ including its buffer zone. An innovative artificially controlled drainage system would be placed to reduce the lake level by minimum three metres. Likewise‚ a complementary second component has been planned to reduce human and property loss in four districts in the Tarai and Churia Range‚ specifically Mahottari‚ Saptari‚ Siraha and Udaypur that experience recurrent flooding .

Thursday, June 20, 2013

Everest Controversies of 2013

Everest being one of the most known landmarks has attracted huge controversies where it has charts news with its headlines. With high rise in numbers coming for Everest Expedition from all over the world, the cases and controversies related to Everest scaling are also increasing. From the small brawl to an actress climbing without permission to the live broad casting from Everest, Everest is buzzing everywhere in News. 
With such controversies happening around, the government of Nepal has decided to organize a three-day event to celebrate the 60th Anniversary of the first ascent of the Mt Everest, with a three-day event from May 27-29. Reality is Everest marks its 60 diamond jubilee with popularity of high controversies and faces of dissatisfaction.
Contemplating such condition and situation the government of Nepal should seriously think about maintaining a strict rules and regulations in retrospect to the revenue and services that can be given and managed. 
Fight at Everest
April 27, 2013: News tops the chart with controversies of violence breaking out at 24,000ft – 5,029ft below the summit. Professional climbers Ueli Steck, Simone Moro, and their photographer, Jonathan Griffith, were attacked at Everest's Camp II (23,000 feet) by an angry group of Sherpas. It was reported that Sherpa guides, who were fixing ropes and digging a path on the snowy trail above Camp 2, asked the climbers to wait until they were finished. Steck, Moro, and Griffith ignored them and started upwards, knocking ice chunks onto the Sherpas below.
 Moro wrote in a press release that the "lead Sherpa was tired and cold and felt that his pride had been damaged as the three climbers were moving unroped and much faster to the side of him."

Everest controversies of 2013

Arjun and Nisha Adhikari climbing without a permit
Nisha Adhikari and Arjun Kari, who have successfully scaled the Mt Everest on 20th May 2013, attracted huge controversies when they were questioned for their permit at the Everest Base camp.
During a check by the Sagarmatha Pollution Control Committee (SPCC), Namche, the actors names were not listed in the expedition team sent to us by the ministry. However, her Everest adventure became controversial after it was discovered that she did not have the permission to climb the peak, as the papers showed her as an assistant in a Chinese expedition team. No climber can go beyond the base camp without expedition permit issued by the Nepalese government.

Daniel Hughes broadcasting
British climber Daniel Hughes has been charged with illegal broadcasting on top of Mt.Everest.
Hughes was found broadcasting live on air with BBC for a live video interview from Mt. Everest  on Sunday without permission from the Nepal Government.

According to Nepal Government, “There is a permit that is required to film or use alternative forms of communication on top of the Everest. Even using a satellite phone on Everest requires a special permission from the Ministry of Information and Communications (MoIC) and a fee of Nrs 120,000. Filming for public broadcast could be higher than USD 10,000. Hughes had not taken any permission from the authorities hence his broadcasting has been termed illegal.”

Though the climber has auctioned his red nose which he wore during the live broadcasting to raise £1 Million for the charity of Comic Relief but still his lack of carelessness shown towards authorities has made expedition controversial. 

Hughes was quoted, "This is the world's first live video call -- never been done before -- from the rooftop of the world," Hughes used his HTC one smartphone to provide video for the call.

AFP reports, “Nepalese government says Hughes' interview broke the law because Hughes did not seek the government's permission for his broadcast.”

Global Temperatures will rise by 2°C to 4°C

According to the Report of world bank entitled “Turn Down the Heat II: Climate Extremes, Regional Impacts, and the Case for Resilience” has forecasted the probability of warming climate to rise by 2°C and 4°C warming on agricultural production, water resources, coastal ecosystems and cities across Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and South East Asia.

Rising temperatures could cause major loss of savanna grasslands threatening pastoral livelihoods. In South Asia, a potential change in the regularity and impact of the monsoon could precipitate a major crisis in the region. Events like the devastating Pakistan floods of 2010, which affected more than 20 million people, could become common place. Across South East Asia, rural livelihoods are faced with mounting pressures as sea levels rise, tropical cyclones increase in intensity and important marine ecosystem services are lost as warming approaches 4°C. Across all regions, the growing movement of impacted communities into cities could lead to higher numbers of people in slums and other informal settlements being exposed to heat waves, flooding, mudslides and diseases.

According to the report, the world is currently 0.8°C above pre-industrial levels of the 18th century and if the current rate of greenhouse gas emission (4.7 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide per capita) is not reduced, the world might see a 4°C rise in temperatures by the end of this century.
In order to adapt to and minimise the adverse impacts of global climate change, the government established the Climate Change Management Division in 2010 and approved the National Adaptation Programme of Action the same year.

With an expected 2°C rise in the world’s average temperature in the next few decades, Nepal will face a host of challenges, including glacial lake outbursts, erratic monsoon, flooding and water insecurity, said a World Bank report released on Wednesday.

Jim Yong Kim, World Bank Group President said,  “The scientists tell us that if the world warms by 2°C -- warming which may be reached in 20 to 30  years  that will cause widespread food shortages, unprecedented heat-waves, and more intense cyclones. In the near-term, climate change, which is already unfolding, could batter the slums even more and greatly harm the lives and the hopes of individuals and families who have had little hand in raising the Earth's temperature. Urgent action is needed to not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also to help countries prepare for a world of dramatic climate and weather extremes.”

Thursday, May 30, 2013

Everest- A test ground for all

Looking at the title people might get surprised with the idea of seeing Everest as a test ground but nostalgically marking the 60th anniversary of the first scaling, I’m bound to write this articles with full presence and sense.   When I talk about working as a test ground, Mt Everest proves to be one of the harshest climates in the world.  Mt. Everest has an extreme climate; the summit temperature never rises above freezing or 32° F (0° C). Its summit temperatures in January average -33° F (-36° C) and can drop to -76° F (-60° C). In July, the average summit temperature is -2° F (-19° C) this makes it an ideal ground for health experts to test human limitation at such condition.

Things are fast changing in the Himalayas. From the first accent till now due to pollution and rising mountain temperatures visible changes of climate change can be seen. Photographs taken around the time of the 1953 expedition show hulking ridges of ice that have since shrunk or disappeared. Glaciers and snow are melting throughout the sprawling mountain range, which stretches across India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal, and Tibetan China. The waning glaciers are leaving precarious mountainside lakes of cyan blue water in their wake.

People are crowding Everest in their effort to make the ultimate recognition from every side possible. In such whim the science of physical limits is being tested. Human limits at such levels can unlock the knowledge of how the human body works. Xtreme Everest, the organization behind the expedition has been conducting tests including performance testing on exercise bikes; blood, saliva, hair, urine, nasal swab and spit collection; lung function and muscle and skin oxygenation measurement, and various ultrasound scans and heart ECG measurement at Everest.

From 2007 under the project Xtreme Everest around 200 people trek to Everest base camp to conduct and take part in different experiments on themselves in the death zone above 8,000m.  This was the first project, which was a not-for-profit collaboration led by medics and scientists from UCL, University of Southampton and Duke University.  The mission obtained valuable data about how cells function at low oxygen levels, how blood is supplied when oxygen is low, and the changes in physiology when oxygen levels drop.

Similarly Xtreme Everest 2 is a project Led by Dr Dan Martin, an anaesthesia and critical care consultant in continuation of the Xtreme Everest project that aims to build on this knowledge, and answer questions the first expedition raised.

"The studies on Everest are trying to be translated into patients fighting for their lives in an intensive care unit," says Dr John Goldstone, an intensive care consultant at The London Clinic, which has helped fund Xtreme Everest.

Over the last two months, thousands of tests have been carried out on both volunteers and the doctors themselves, in makeshift laboratories at the 5,300m-high Everest base camp and at Namche Bazaar, a small settlement at an altitude of 3,500m on the way to base camp.

Apart from that Valery Rozov, 48, an extreme sports enthusiast leaped off Mount Everest to mark 60 years since Edmund Hillary and Tensing Norgay conquered the world’s highest mountain. He spent more than two years preparing for the jump, including considerable time devoted to developing a special new wing suit. Rozov and his team, which included four sherpas as well as photographers and camera crew, spent nearly three weeks in the Himalayas before the jump on May 5.

In another case British climber Daniel Hughes made the world first video call from Mt. Everest directly to BBC despite undermining the legal prospect of Nepal.  "This is the world's first live video call -- never been done before -- from the rooftop of the world," Hughes said.
AFP reported, “Nepalese government says Hughes' interview broke the law because Hughes did not seek the government's permission for his broadcast.”

With a huge increase of people climbing Mt. Everest the lack of care shown by the government has resulted in Mt. Everest being littered by climbers and mountaineers. The Guardian reports, “This year, 520 climbers have reached the summit of Everest. On 19 May, around 150 climbed the last 3,000 feet of the peak from Camp IV within hours of each other, causing lengthy delays as mountaineers queued to descend or ascend harder sections. Most of the traffic jams are at the Hillary Step because only one person can go up or down. If you have people waiting two, three or even four hours that means lots of exposure. To make the climbing easier, that would be wrong. But this is a safety feature, said Sherpa, who co-ordinates the work to prepare the traditional route up the mountain for clients who pay between $45,000 and $75,000.”

According to
climatechangediplomacy, “In a joint collaboration of Nepal Army and Indian Army, the teams have collected over 4,000 kg of garbage in and around the area of Everest base camp. The initiative was called the Joint Sagarmatha Mountaineering and Cleanliness Campaign 2013 which almost took two months. The team collected 2250 kg of bio-hazardous waste and 1,760 kg of less toxic waste that was left by climbers and mountaineer which was handed over to the Mount Everest Pollution Control Committee in Namche of Solukhumbu district on Monday.”

As part of the Mt. Everest 8848 Art Project, a group of 15 artists from Nepal collected 1.5 tons of garbage brought down the mountain by climbers. They’ve transformed the cans and oxygen cylinders—and in one case, part of the remains of a helicopter—into 74 pieces of art that have already gone on exhibition in Nepal’s capital.

Reality of today, Mt. Everest is the highest point on earth and today it requires huge amount of attention and care in regardless of the number and expedition happening. On one hand climate change is drastically affecting the Mt Everest region in melting its Glaciers where as on the other the number of people scaling Everest due to lack of Nepal Government’s supervision is turning into a litter site. 
Everest the highest point on earth proves to be an impression of showcasing popularity where on its side it searches its existence.   

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

4000 kgs of garbage collected from Everest

28 May 2013 Kathmandu:
In a joint collaboration of Nepal Army and Indian Army, the team have collected over 4,000 kg of garbage in and around the area of Everest base camp. The initiative was called the Joint Sagarmatha Mountaineering and Cleanliness Campaign 2013 which almost took two months. The team collected  2250 kg of bio-hazardous waste and 1,760 kg of less toxic waste that was left by climbers and mountaineer which was  handed over to the Mount Everest Pollution Control Committee in Namche of Solukhumbu district on Monday.

Tuesday, June 26, 2012

Rumors of Imja Glacial Lake Outburst causes huge stress

Solukhumbu : The local inhabitant of the Solukhumbu around Koshi River of Khumjung VDC of Solukhumbu are scared and terrorized with the news of glacier outburst . Rumors are on that the Imja glacial lake poses a great threat, due to which people have started to panic.

The rumour was spread after one national television prepared a programme with the possibility of the outburst of Imja glacial lake.

Sunday, June 17, 2012

Hypocrisy at its best, Climate Change an issue of Political Image

The Prime minister of Nepal Baburam Bhattrai is planning to leave for the trip to Rio de Janerio on Monday to address the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development of Rio+20 from June 20-22. The government made the decision on May 29 after the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly where PM Bhattarai is expected to lead a 21-member delegation for the Rio+20 summit.

Similarly looking back to history in COP 15 2008, when Prime Minister Baburam Bhattrai attended the conference he opined,” Climate change and sustainable development as an ‘anti-development agenda’ and ‘imperialist propaganda. He expressed his staunch belief that Nepal needed to be fully industrialized at all cost and work on its economic growth rather than focus on ‘environment issues’ that hindered economic growth.”

With high controversy and interest surrounding the issue of global warming and climate change, it has become a huge interest for political leaders not in regards to issue but with the question of international exposure and recognition. It may seems a question of incompetence but the head of the state who lack to understand the issues, represent the country on forecasting and bargaining the deal for climate change issue and agendas is a joke. May be that is the reason why we get the least of what is offered on table. The go green campaign has become a political agenda in synchronizing and interpreting its meaning questioning the relevancy and effectiveness of the whole visit and barging at the international table. Anyone can imagine the state of mind and result with such intellectual capabilities as ultimately it comes down to the person leading the team, so what to expect with leaders, who lack to understand the potency of such summit.

Likewise, opposition parties and Nepali congress activists have announced that they will show black flags and prevent the PM from going to the summit. In September 2010, then Prime Minister Madhav Kumar Nepal had called off his trip to New York to take part in the 65th UN General Assembly owing to his caretaker status and domestic political. Climate change issue has been a political issue of substance which more or less stands for international recognition and exposure.

Due to lack of political culture and weak ethics, Nepal politics fluctuation with cheap publicity stunts and marketing strategies that are least effective questioning the image and vision of a leader. A leader who in true sense would lead the country towards development with effective policies not political agenda's

Wednesday, May 9, 2012

Flooding caused 26 dead and counting in Nepal

Pokhara  May 9, 2012:  The flooding in the high Himalayan region in northwestern Nepal Pokhara on  Saturday, May 5, 2012 has resulted in 26 dead where still 43 people are missing including three foreign trekkers. The lake waters that flooded the Seti River on Saturday resulted the catastrophic flooding in the remote Kaski district. The flood swept away parts of Sardikhola village.
High rescue operation has been going on in the region by security forces but still the death is expected to rise in the coming days.

Due to climate changes and lack of adaptation strategy, Nepal was thought of being in the high risk zone of the glacier burst but this is the biggest and largest of its kind.

The government had already announced an immediate compensation of Nrs 100,000 rupees for the families whose people have been killed and an immediate relief Nrs 25,000 for the shelter.

Thursday, December 8, 2011

Kyoto Protocol in Delima of extension - Kyoto Protocol dead !!!!!!

Durban, South Africa December 8, 2011: The Durban COP 17 mandate which is due to end on Friday is surrounded with controversies and is divided over whether the Kyoto Protocol has a future or not. The EU has openly expressed its intention of joining the extension of the Kyoto Protocol only if the world’s biggest emitters, including China, the US and India, will do the same. Where the question lies in the three big nations CHINA, USA and INDIA.
The problems seem to lie with these three players who have been manipulating the protocol in their own desired way. China on the positive side seems to be ready to advance to the next stage of the Kyoto protocol but still has its side of reservation regarding some issues where as on the other side India and Unites states seems to be the two biggest democracies hindering the process highlighting their priorities and issues . They have been arguing with the issue of their contradiction where they seem transverse to the issue. The USA on the other side has been very hard on issues of its standards and way of life where as on the other side India has been reluctant to the fact that Indian economic development would be hampered by climate protection.

One world group, says “The United States has been accused time and again over the past 10 days of trying to block progress on many key issues. Perhaps the biggest issue of them all is a mandate to negotiate a new agreement that would bring more countries under legally binding obligations to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions The EU is pushing for such a mandate, with a new treaty to come into effect by 2015.”

Tuesday, December 6, 2011

KYOTO PROTOCOL - Lacks to address internal attributes

KYOTO PROTOCOL (COP 3—Kyoto, Japan, 1997) is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions .These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012. The major distinction between the Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize GHG emissions, the Protocol commits them to do so.

What happens if the Kyoto Protocol expires is a big question for least developed countries like Nepal. The basic idea behind the Kyoto protocol was to create feasible environment of DIPLOMACY in between the Developed, developing and the under developed countries where a feasible solution could be figured out in adaptation strategy for the under developed countries and further mitigation strategies could be adapted by the Developed and developing countries. The protocol was designed to encase the drafter with respect to their realistic emissions-reduction goals, and decrease in pollution levels that would start to mitigate climate change.

The basic purpose of the Kyoto Protocol was to reduce the level of green house gases emission and to further help integrate the least developed countries a voice to speak for themselves. With a limited output in the past years from the time of its initiation till now, Kyoto protocol has seen its ups and downs where 200 nations had signed the protocol and only 37 developed nations have took the GHG reduction goal. The prospect of KYOTO PROTOCOL seems as a question for its effectiveness and operation. Despite being one of its strongest early supporters United States never ratified the protocol. the Bush Administration believed it gave the undeveloped nations an economic advantage. Therefore, most of the world’s biggest CO2 contributors are not bound by the Kyoto Protocol to reduce their emissions. Ratification makes a country legally bound to the commitment it made when it signed the document.

The protocol also highlights the major issue of reducing the rates of the GHG emission rate by its rates of 1990 where it moderately subside the level of what and how much. Most importantly it lacks to address the contribution and role of the developing countries that had experienced great economic growth, such as India and China during the period of the protocol. While participating nations are given credit for planting trees and funding sustainable energy, there is no reward for conservation or preservation. This protocol does not protect the existing forests that hold 40% of terrestrial carbon. The Protocol doesn’t even set a long-term goal for atmospheric concentrations of CO2, so there is no objective reason for either the overall reductions or the particular reductions by individual nations that it proposes.

So the difference in between the understanding of Developed and the developing nations have certainly led to point out the cons of the Kyoto protocol. But reality is with great powers, come great responsibilities and if these gaps are not overcome with proper mechanism. The world will certainly have to face confrontation at the stake of what we has lost …………………….

COP 17 Durban Video Conferencing with the Nepali Technical Team

Admits high protest and tension in and around the Durban saying conference of the polluters Nepal and Nepalese team is all set to know their share of understanding regarding the CLIMATE CHANGE prospects and the CLIMATE CHANGE FUND that they will be receiving. With limited technical knowledge and limited concepts the policy making politicians who have leaded the team are busy in lobbying the so called aspect of CLIMATE change NEGOTIATION which in reality is more than a bargaining deal from the DEVELOPED COUNTRIES to the least developed countries. For instant COP17 is not a NEGOTIATING TABLE in between the developed and underdeveloped in-fact it is a form of DIPLOMACY where the powerful contemplates and rules in the smaller in action for what has been done. DO we stand a chance here is a big question where big countries like USA and their stand certainly questions the renewal of Kyoto Protocol ..........


Sunday, December 4, 2011

Glacier melting in the Himalayan region

Kathmandu Nepal: The estimated snow covered area and in the Himalayan region has reduced to 60,054 sq km from an estimated 110,000 sq km. According to the researchers, the first comprehensive research on snow covers in the Hindukush Himalayan region released here today claims that there are 54,252 glaciers in the Himalayan Region with 60,054 sq km. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) claims Nepal has depleted by 21 percent over the past 30 year. ICIMOD claims the three reports provide the most up-to-date compilation of information on the current status of climate change in the HKH region and the first authoritative data on the number and extent of glaciers and the patterns of snowfall in the world´s most mountainous region. The study conducted used decadal (2001-2010) data on snow products recorded by moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, which presents an account of snow mapping and monitoring initiatives at different levels from regional to global. The report claims it gives comprehensive baseline information for Himalayan glaciers that are one of the most data deficient areas when talked about the effect of climate change in the region.

Tuesday, November 22, 2011

Climate Change Diplomacy CONFERENCE OF PARTIES (COP) 17 -– An Analysis

The role and scope of Climate Change Diplomacy is immense to its practice and what needs to be done. From the Bali agreement (COP 13) to the Cop 15 to the latest Cancun Agreements in COP 16, Climate change diplomacy has been one of the most sort after conferences. It has not only has set miles stone in taking initial steps but also making base for the future generations to fight back against this problem. Realizing and looking back to the step moved ahead we have been maintaining and progress the level of growth where every year the GHG effects have increased tremendously due to lack of monitoring and mechanism.BALI AGREEMENT (COP 13): The Bali Climate Change Conference brought together more than 10,000 participants, including representatives of over 180 countries together with observers from intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and the media. Governments adopted the Bali Road Map, a set of decisions that represented the various tracks that were seen as key to reaching a global climate deal. The Bali Road Map includes the Bali Action Plan, which launched a "new, comprehensive process to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention through long-term cooperative action, now, up to and beyond 2012", with the aim of reaching an agreed outcome and adopting a decision at COP15 in Copenhagen. Governments divided the plan into five main categories: shared vision, mitigation, adaptation, technology and financing. Please click here for the full text of the Bali Action Plan.
Other elements in the Bali Road Map included:

Ø A decision on deforestation and forest management;
Ø A decision on technology for developing countries;
Ø The establishment of the Adaptation Fund Board
Ø The review of the financial mechanism, going beyond the existing Global Environmental Facility.

The Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA) was set up to conduct work under the Bali Action Plan. The Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) was to work in parallel. The central task of the AWG-KP was to decide the emission reduction commitments of industrialized countries after the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period expired in 2012.
The 2007 Bali Climate Change Conference culminated in the adoption of the Bali Road Map, which consists of a number of forward-looking decisions that represent the various tracks that are essential to reaching a secure climate future. The Bali Road Map includes the Bali Action Plan, which charts the course for a new negotiating process designed to tackle climate change, with the aim of completing this by 2009, along with a number of other decisions and resolutions.

KYOTO PROTOCOL (COP 3—Kyoto, Japan, 1997): The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions .These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012.
The major distinction between the Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialised countries to stabilize GHG emissions, the Protocol commits them to do so.

Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity, the Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities.” The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. The detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol were adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh in 2001, and are called the “Marrakesh Accords.”

The Kyoto mechanisms:
Under the Treaty, countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures. However, the Kyoto Protocol offers them an additional means of meeting their targets by way of three market-based mechanisms.
The Kyoto mechanisms are:

Ø Emissions trading – known as “the carbon market"
Ø Clean development mechanism (CDM)
Ø Joint implementation (JI).

The mechanisms help stimulate green investment and help Parties meet their emission targets in a cost-effective way.
Monitoring emission targets: Under the Protocol, countries’actual emissions have to be monitored and precise records have to be kept of the trades carried out. Registry systems track and record transactions by Parties under the mechanisms. The UN Climate Change Secretariat, based in Bonn, Germany, keeps an international transaction log to verify that transactions are consistent with the rules of the Protocol. Reporting is done by Parties by way of submitting annual emission inventories and national reports under the Protocol at regular intervals. A compliance system ensures that Parties are meeting their commitments and helps them to meet their commitments if they have problems doing so.
Adaptation: The Kyoto Protocol, like the Convention, is also designed to assist countries in adapting to the adverse effects of climate change. It facilitates the development and deployment of techniques that can help increase resilience to the impacts of climate change.
The Adaptation Fund was established to finance adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The Fund is financed mainly with a share of proceeds from CDM project activities.
The road ahead: The Kyoto Protocol is generally seen as an important first step towards a truly global emission reduction regime that will stabilize GHG emissions, and provides the essential architecture for any future international agreement on climate change. By the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol in 2012, a new international framework needs to have been negotiated and ratified that can deliver the stringent emission reductions the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has clearly indicated are needed.

CONBFERENCE OF PARTIES 15 (COP 15) : COP 15’s goal is an agreement on a new climate treaty to replace the Kyoto Protocol, which was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. The Kyoto Protocol expires in 2012.
According to Yvo de Boer, the Executive Secretary of the UN Climate Change Secretariat, the four essentials of such a new agreement are:
1 How much are the industrialized countries willing to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases?
2 How much are major developing countries such as China and India willing to do to limit the growth of their emissions?
3 How is the help needed by developing countries to engage in reducing their emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change going to be financed?
4 How is that money going to be managed?

COP 17: Looking back to the COP 16 learning, the United Nations Climate Change Conference, Durban 2011, will the different concepts and ideas again from different parts of the world. The discussions will seek to advance, in a balanced fashion, the implementation of the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol, as well as the Bali Action Plan, agreed at COP 13 in 2007, and the Cancun Agreements, reached at COP 16 last December. The agreements, reached on December 11 in Cancun, Mexico, at the 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference represent key steps forward in capturing plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to help developing nations protect themselves from climate impacts and build their own sustainable futures.MAIN


Ø Establish clear objectives for reducing human-generated greenhouse gas emissions over time to keep the global average temperature rise below two degrees
Ø encourage the participation of all countries in reducing these emissions, in accordance with each country’s different responsibilities and capabilities to do so
Ø ensure the international transparency of the actions which are taken by countries and ensure that global progress towards the long-term goal is reviewed in a timely way
Ø mobilize the development and transfer of clean technology to boost efforts to address climate change, getting it to the right place at the right time and for the best effect
Ø mobilize and provide scaled-up funds in the short and long term to enable developing countries to take greater and effective action
Ø assist the particularly vulnerable people in the world to adapt to the inevitable impacts of climate change
Ø protect the world’s forests, which are a major repository of carbon
Ø build up global capacity, especially in developing countries, to meet the overall challenge
Ø establish effective institutions and systems which will ensure these objectives are implemented successfully


Ø they form the basis for the largest collective effort the world has ever seen to reduce emissions, in a mutually accountable way, with national plans captured formally at international level under the banner of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Ø they include the most comprehensive package ever agreed by Governments to help developing nations deal with climate change. This encompasses finance, technology and capacity-building support to help them meet urgent needs to adapt to climate change and to speed up their plans to adopt sustainable paths to low emission economies which can also resist the negative impacts of climate change.
Ø they include a timely schedule for nations under the Climate Change Convention to review the progress they make towards their expressed objective of keeping the average global temperature rise below two degrees Celsius. This includes an agreement to review whether the objective needs to be strengthened in future, on the basis of the best scientific knowledge available.

Implementing the Cancun agreements means that Governments will want to turn their decisions into action that brings real benefits for people on the ground as soon as possible.
It is also clear that while Cancun delivered the shape of a comprehensive international system for collective action to deal with climate change, further details of how to make this system operate to effect will continue to be fleshed out among Governments during 2011.
This is important to ensure that newly created institutions become fully functional and the framework delivers quickly, especially to help the poor and vulnerable to adapt most effectively to climate change.


Ø a Green Climate Fund to house the international management, deployment and accountability of long-term funds for developing country support
Ø a Technology Mechanism to get clean technologies to the right place, at the right time and to best effect
Ø an Adaptation Framework to boost international cooperation to help developing countries protect themselves from the impacts of climate change
Ø a Registry where developing countries will detail their voluntary plans to limit greenhouse gas emissions and the support they need to achieve them

During 2010, many countries submitted their existing plans for controlling greenhouse gas emissions to the Climate Change Secretariat and these proposals have now been formally acknowledged under the Climate Change Convention. Industrial countries presented their plans in the shape of economy-wide targets to reduce emissions, mainly up to 2020, while developing nations proposed ways to limit their growth of emissions in the shape of plans of action.

DEVELOPED COUNTRY EMISSION REDUCTION TARGETS: All industrialized countries submitted economy-wide emission reduction targets. A compilation of these economy-wide emission reduction targets has meanwhile been officially published and will be followed-up under the Climate Change Convention. A process of international assessment on the implementation of these targets will begin in 2011. It was agreed that industrialized countries will boost the regular reporting of progress towards these targets by submitting detailed annual inventories of greenhouse gas emissions and by reporting on progress in emission reductions every two years. The guidelines for strengthened reporting are to be worked out and Governments’ views on how this may best be done were submitted to the UNFCCC secretariat by 28 March, 2011. Additionally, industrialized countries agreed to develop low-carbon development strategies or plans, which will ensure robust foundations are built that will stand the test of time.

FURTHER SPECIFIC DECISIONS UNDER THE KYOTO PROTOCOL: Further mitigation commitments by Parties to the Kyoto Protocol beyond 2012 are still under consideration. The Protocol also includes an inter-linked set of ways and means to help developing countries build clean and sustainable economies with investment from industrialized countries, at the same time helping industrialized countries meet targets to cut emissions in an environmentally sound way.

The Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was strengthened to drive major investments and technology into environmentally sound and sustainable emission reduction projects, especially to those areas of the developing world which have not yet benefited as much as they could. This will be done by means of a loan scheme to encourage clean development mechanism project activities in countries that have fewer than 10 such activities registered. Governments agreed to allow carbon capture and storage projects in the CDM, provided that a range of technical issues and safety requirements are resolved and fulfilled. To this end, further technical work will be carried out in 2011 in order to resolve these issues and with the aim of having a final decision in Durban.

Governments agreed that in a second commitment period, the Kyoto Protocol’s emissions trading and project-based mechanisms, which encourage clean technology investment from industrialized countries into developing countries, are to continue to be available to developed countries as an additional means of meeting their own emission reduction targets.

The agreement reached in Cancun on land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) called for the submission of reference levels for forest management. The Kyoto negotiations have been looking at how countries include forest management in their greenhouse gas (GHG) accounts. Forests naturally absorb carbon dioxide, so when including forest management, reference levels or other options need to be negotiated so that countries don’t get credited for removals that naturally occur anyway.

The reporting and subsequent technical assessment of these reference levels is an important step that paves the way for a decision in Durban to regulate GHG emissions and removals of forest-related activities on the basis of a scientifically sound approach and an internationally assessed set of data.

DECISIONS ADDRESSING DEVELOPING COUNTRY MITIGATION PLANS: During 2010, many developing countries submitted their plans to limit the growth of their emissions, with appropriate and adequate support from industrialized countries in the form of technology cooperation, finance and help in capacity-building. These plans are known as NAMAs. Capacity-building means strengthening the national institutional and personnel resources needed to achieve developing country adaptation and mitigation objectives. NAMAs are grounded in the overall objective of ensuring sustainable development, and are aimed at achieving a deviation in emissions relative to what would otherwise be ‘business as usual’ emissions by 2020. A compilation of these NAMAs has meanwhile been officially published. The Cancun decisions now provide a formal international registry for these plans and strengthen the ways and means both to see them to fruition and to make the effort and support for that effort transparent. Specifically, those NAMAs where countries require international support in the form of technology, finance or capacity-building, will be recorded in a registry, where the action and the support for that action can be clearly matched. The registry will be maintained by the UNFCCC secretariat. Those actions where countries are taking action but are not asking for international support for it will be recorded in a separate section of the registry. Developing countries will provide information on the actions for which they are seeking support, whereas industrialized countries will provide information on available support for these actions. Supported actions will be measured, reported and verified internationally, whereas for domestically supported actions this will be done at the national level. The intention is that the countries which provide the support, and the countries which receive the support, are both satisfied that adequate resources are going to the right place for the right reasons and are having the best impact.

It was also agreed that developing countries will also increase reporting of progress towards their mitigation objectives, although in a differentiated way to that of industrialized countries. A process of international consultation and analysis of these biennial reports will be established.

The guidelines for matching actions and support, reporting, international consultation and analysis, as well as for measurement, reporting and verification are all to be developed during 2011, and views on the detailed guidelines were submitted to the secretariat by 28 March, 2011.
Additionally, developing countries are encouraged under the agreement to draw up low-carbon development strategies or plans.


Governments also agreed to launch concrete action on forests in developing nations, which will increase going forward. The full financing options for the implementation of such mitigation actions in the forest area will be addressed during 2011.

COST-EFFECTIVE MEANS TO ACHIEVE MITIGATION GOALS:In the course of 2011, Governments will also continue work towards establishing one or more new market-based mechanisms to both enhance and promote the cost-effectiveness of mitigation actions. The establishment of such a mechanism will be considered in Durban.

ADDRESSING ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF RESPONSE MEASURES: In some cases, the implementation of actions that reduce emissions could result in negative economic or social consequences for other countries. As a result, Governments decided to convene a forum in 2011 to further discuss this and to establish a work programme to address such consequences. ADAPTATION: The conference established the Cancun Adaptation Framework, which will strengthen action on adaptation in developing countries through international cooperation. It will support better planning and implementation of adaptation measures through increased financial and technical support, and through strengthening and/or establishing regional centres and networks. The framework will also boost research, assessments and technology cooperation on adaptation, as well as strengthen education and public awareness.
In addition to the Cancun Adaptation Framework, the conference also established an Adaptation Committee to promote the implementation of stronger action on adaptation by providing technical support and guidance to countries, strengthening knowledge-sharing and promoting synergy between a range of stakeholders. The composition and procedures of the committee, as well as its linkages to other institutional arrangements, are still to be developed, and Governments submitted their ideas on this to the secretariat by 21 February, 2011.
The conference also established a process for least developed countries (LDCs) and other interested developing countries to formulate and implement national adaptation plans (NAPs) to identify and address their medium and long-term adaptation needs. This builds upon the positive experience of LDCs up to now in addressing their urgent and immediate adaptation needs through similar plans which were supported via the LDC Expert Group. The mandate of this technical expert body was therefore extended for another five years.
Also, a clear work programme on how best to address loss and damage from climate change impacts in developing countries was established. During the next two years, countries will consider options on how to manage and reduce the climate change risk to developing nations. This includes the possible development of a climate risk insurance facility. It also includes ways to address rehabilitation from the impacts of such climate change-related events as sea-level rise.

FINANCIAL, TECHNOLOGY AND CAPACITY-BUILDING SUPPORT: The financial, technology and capacity-building support agreed in Cancun applies to both mitigation and adaptation actions by developing countries. The details of these cross-cutting elements of the agreement follow: FAST-START FINANCE UP TO 2012Governments will endeavour to make the provision of an agreed fast-start finance for developing countries approaching USD 30 billion up to 2012 more transparent by regularly making information available on these funds. This will include ways in which developing countries can access these resources. Industrialized country Governments are invited to submit a complete overview of fast-start funding to the UN Climate Change Secretariat by May 2011, including ways in which developing countries can access these resources. The secretariat in turn has been tasked with making this information publicly available.


In order to scale up the provision of long-term financing for developing countries, Governments decided to establish a Green Climate Fund that will function under the guidance of, and be accountable to the Conference of the Parties (COP). The new fund will support projects, programmes, policies and other activities in developing countries using thematic funding windows.
The fund will be governed by a Green Climate Fund Board, comprising 24 members with equal representation from developing and developed countries. The fund will be administered by a trustee and supported by a professional secretariat. The World Bank will serve as the interim trustee. Governments decided to establish a Transitional Committee of 40 members to design the details of the fund. This design phase is to be concluded by the Durban Climate Conference at the end of 2011.Furthermore, Governments decided to establish a Standing Committee under the COP, which will assist the COP in exercising its functions with respect to the mobilization, delivery and verification of long-term finance. The specific roles and functions of the Standing Committee are to be developed.

In the broad context of long-term financial support, industrialized countries committed to provide funds rising to USD 100 billion per year by 2020 to support concrete mitigation actions by developing countries that are implemented in a transparent way. These funds would be raised from a mix of public and private sources.


In order to strengthen technology development and transfer, Governments decided to establish aTechnology Mechanism, which will be accountable to the COP. Governments agreed that the Technology Mechanism should be fully operational in 2012.The mechanism includes a Technology Executive Committee (TEC), which will strengthen the development and deployment of new technologies, as well as strive to increase public and private investment in technology development and transfer. The TEC will hold its first meetings in the course of 2011. The TEC will also assist in providing an overview of needs for the development and transfer of technologies for mitigation and adaptation. Additionally, it will recommend policies and actions to boost technology cooperation.The Technology Mechanism also includes a Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) to facilitate national, regional, sectoral and international technology networks, organizations and initiatives. The CTCN will aim to mobilize and enhance global clean technology capabilities, provide direct assistance to developing countries, and facilitate prompt action on the deployment of existing technologies. Furthermore, the centre will encourage collaboration with the private and public sectors, as well as with academic and research institutions, to develop and transfer emerging technologies to the best effect. Further work on the relationship between these new institutions, their governance and links with the financial mechanism are needed in 2011.


Governments decided to increase capacity-building support to developing countries by strengthening relevant institutions, networks and climate change communication, education, training and public awareness at all levels. Included in this is increased sharing of information.The structure for institutional arrangements for capacity-building, as well as ways to increase the monitoring of the effectiveness of capacity-building, are to be developed in 2011. They will be considered in Durban.


Governments also agreed that it was necessary to boost information-sharing, awareness-raising and public education on climate change, and the secretariat is committed to supporting that work in all its aspects.

Compliled by Shreedeep Rayamajhi